Sira Sharira (Shareera) That means, Sorts And Significance

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By Dr Raghuram Y.S.MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
The phrases Sira, Dhamani and Srotas are used interchangeably in Ayurveda. All of those buildings transport one thing or the opposite from one a part of the physique to the opposite. The outline of every of those reveals that they’re totally different buildings serving totally different capabilities within the physique. Sira Sharira i.e. research of siras is equated to angiology therefore, thought-about as ‘Ayurveda Angiology’.
Learn – Dhamani Sharira That means, Perform, Features, Distribution

Definition of Sira

Based on Atharva Veda  – ‘Siras are these which carry impure blood. They’re really known as Hira as an alternative of Sira. These of which carry pure blood are known as dhamani’.

With this reference we perceive that the sira is vein and dhamani is artery. However, Grasp Sushruta’s rationalization of sira encompasses many buildings i.e. veins, arteries, lymphatic and nerves.

Grasp Charaka says ‘Since there’s motion of blood in these buildings they’re known as as sira’. Sarana means ‘to go’ or ‘to maneuver from one place to the opposite’. 

Grasp Gangadhara tells ‘Sarana means the motion of rasa and different tissues. The construction wherein such motion takes place is known as as sira’. Right here we get a doubt since Gangadhara has particularly talked about ‘rasadinam gamanat’ i.e. many extra tissues apart from blood circulate or transfer in these siras. However the buildings which carry all of the tissues are known as as srotas. Sira and Srotas have been used as synonymous to one another by many authors. Dhamani can be a synonym of sira and srotas. The title of the identical construction could be sira, dhamani or srotas relying on what sort of perform they’re rendering. However they’re anatomically and functionally totally different since, they’ve been described individually despite getting used interchangeably.

One other reality is that the srotas carry the tissues that are within the technique of transformation and siras carry the shaped blood and lymph / plasma tissue.
Learn – Rasa Dhatu: Definition, Formation, Circulation, Imbalance Ailments, Remedy

Origin, Root, Variety of Siras

Grasp Sushruta says that there are a complete variety of 700 siras within the human physique. The capabilities of the siras are to supply vitamin to each a part of the physique. Due to this fact they’re unfold out in your complete physique. This has been defined with appropriate examples –

Understanding the capabilities of Siras with examples of water carriers and small channels – Similar to the water carriers sprinkle water to each plant within the backyard / grove and identical to the small canals / channels carrying water convey water to each a part of the sector and nourish the crops therein, the siras unfold all by way of the physique and nourish all buildings therein.

Understanding the construction of sira with examples of veins of leaves – Similar to the veins and venules are unfold over the leaf, the siras unfold all by way of the physique. They department and re-branch as they unfold out.
Learn – Shaareera: Ayurvedic Research Of Anatomy And Physiology

Root of origin of siras – Umbilicus is the basis of origin of siras. After taking their origin within the navel the siras unfold upwards, downwards and side-wards. They unfold all through the physique from the navel. This can be the reason in relation to fetal circulation and restricted to that a part of rationalization from the trendy perspective. The life ingredient of all dwelling beings is positioned within the navel. And the navel exists on the premise of the life parts linked to it. The navel is surrounded by the siras in a method just like the spokes of a wheel which encompass the axle of the wheel. From this instance we perceive that the navel is the axle and the siras taking their origin from the navel and in addition surrounding the navel kind the spokes of the axle. Thus, the navel and the siras round it seem like the wheel and its spokes. Similar to the axle depends on the spokes and spokes on the axle, the life ingredient is positioned within the navel and the supply of existence of the navel is the pranas i.e. life parts linked to it.

The prana which is linked to the navel on this context must be understood as ‘blood’. Siras convey blood and blood is a crucial life ingredient, we stay when the blood flows uninterruptedly to each nook of the physique. The navel is surrounded by siras additionally signifies that the navel is surrounded by blood – described as life ingredient on this context. 

After we have a look at the fetal circulation we perceive that the blood circulation to and from the kid occurs by way of the infant’s navel. The vitamin to the infant from the mom passes by way of the placenta, umbilical wire and navel of the kid to the kid. This has to occur uninterruptedly for the reason that child within the womb doesn’t have its personal circulation and oxygenation system which is working. The newborn and sustenance of its life and progress of the infant is completely depending on the mom and the mechanism of fetal circulation which connects the mom with the infant. If this connection will get reduce off from the infant’s navel or if the fetal circulation is hampered it could end result within the dying of the kid within the womb. If the kid has inadequate blood and vitamin provide by way of the fetal circulation, the kid may take start with many abnormalities. From this angle the navel may need been stated to be the basis and origin of siras. Due to this fact this description is from the embryological viewpoint.
Learn – Embryology As Per Ayurveda

Why solely 700 siras – 700 siras must be understood because the bigger branches of siras. They might additional department into smaller branches as they unfold all through the physique and thus hundreds of siras are shaped.

If we fastidiously observe the meanings of the above talked about 3 examples, the examples clarify 3 totally different sorts of siras.

Sl No Instance describing siras Kind of sira referred to by the instance
1 Water provider Bigger siras – most likely the 700 siras talked about by Sushruta
2 Channels / small canals conveying water to the vegetation / crops within the fields The secondary branches of the above stated 700 siras, siras of reasonable measurement – measurement of those siras are smaller than the bigger siras
3 Veins and venules of the leaves The tertiary branches of the siras, the smallest branches which most likely department out from the reasonable sized siras talked about above

Learn – Srotas: Physique Channels and Duct methods – Simple Clarification

Notice – If sira is taken as vein, the research must be carried out in a reverse method. Analogy / instance 3 explains the formation of venules on the capillary degree, becoming a member of to develop into the secondary tributaries (analogy / instance 2). These secondary tributaries be a part of collectively to develop into bigger veins (water provider instance / analogy 1) which drain into the guts. If we have to use the phrase artery for sira we will additionally think about the phrase ‘branches’ as an alternative of ‘tributaries’ and  their distribution could be understood in a descending method i.e. analogy 1 to analogy 3.

Relation of siras with capabilities of the physique and physique components – Vital privileged capabilities like extension, flexion, speech, sleeping awakening and so on are underneath the management of siras. This implies to say that if the siras and their branches prolong to each a part of the physique and supply them with the wanted vitamin the talked about capabilities will probably be doable in an unhampered method. The phrase ‘adi’ which implies ‘and so on’ explains that many capabilities of the physique are depending on how the siras and their branches are distributed in your complete physique.
Learn – Upadhatu Of Rakta: Sira, Kandara – Sub Tissues Of Rakta

Sanskrit Verses

700 siras

There are 700 siras within the physique. These siras too take their origin from the principle root 40 siras.

Division of 40 root siras

Sl No Title of the Sira Quantity
1 Vatavaha – these conveying vata 10
2 Pittavaha – these conveying pitta 10
3 Kaphavaha – these conveying kapha 10
4 Raktavaha – these conveying blood 10
Complete 40

Additional division of 40 siras

  1. The siras positioned within the seats of vata and conveying vata are 175 in quantity.
  2. The siras positioned within the seats of pitta and conveying pitta are 175 in quantity.
  3. The siras positioned within the seats of kapha and conveying kapha are 175 in quantity.
  4. The siras positioned within the seats of blood i.e. liver and spleen and conveying blood are 175 in quantity.

Thus the ten root siras every transporting vata, pitta, kapha and blood are additional divided into 175 branches every. Thus the 40 root siras make a complete of 700 siras i.e. 175×4 = 700 siras.
Learn Sankhya Shaareera: Rely Of Physique Components As Per Ayurveda

Vatavaha Siras, Vata transporting siras

The basis vata carrying siras are 40 in quantity. They’re additional divided into 175 siras. The additional sub-division of 175 siras are as beneath talked about –

Sl No Seat of Vata carrying siras No of siras Sub-divisions of those siras
1 Limbs 100 Proper higher limb 25
Left higher limb 25
Proper decrease limb 25
Left decrease limb 25
2 Trunk – Thorax + Stomach 34 Buttock, Penis (genital), Pelvis 08
Proper flank 02
Left flank 02
Again 06
Stomach 06
Chest / Thorax 10
3 Above the extent of clavicle / collar bone (neck and head) 41 Neck 14
Ears (each collectively) 04
Tongue 09
Nostril 06
Eyes (each collectively) 08

Pittavaha, Kaphavah and Raktavaha Siras

The division and subdivisions of pitta, kapha and blood carrying siras would be the similar as that being talked about for vata carrying channels.

The distinction is that there are 10 siras carrying pitta within the eyes and a pair of within the ears. The identical are the variety of siras carrying kapha and blood to eyes and ears.
Learn – Channels Of Circulation And Doshas

Features of un-vitiated and vitiated vata in vata carrying siras

Many of the bodily and psychological capabilities of our physique are underneath the management of vata. Vayu would render these capabilities in an ideal and uninterrupted method being in its siras.

The mind wouldn’t deviate from its regular capabilities. Many extra capabilities of regular and balanced vayu are carried out by the vayu being in its personal siras. The energy, coloration, complexion, reflection and immunity will probably be at their optimum when the balanced vayu operates being in its siras. When the vitiated vata will get positioned in its siras and operates from therein it might trigger big selection of problems of vata origin.
Learn – Signs Of Vata Dosha Enhance And Imbalance – Vata Vruddhi Lakshana

Features of un-vitiated and vitiated pitta in pitta carrying siras

The balanced pitta being in its siras induces good virtues and capabilities. It brings about coloration and complexion, style in direction of meals, good digestive capability and digestion of meals, state of properly being and so on. Many extra capabilities of regular and balanced pitta are carried out by the pitta being in its personal siras. The digestive hearth is saved in its uncontaminated kind and in its fullest energy. This hearth would digest the meals in a correct method and produce good high quality nutritive juices which assist in correct vitamin of the physique.

When the vitiated pitta will get positioned within the siras and operates from therein it might trigger a wide selection of problems of pitta origin.
Learn – Pitta Dosha – Normal Introduction

Features of un-vitiated and vitiated kapha in kapha carrying siras

The balanced kapha, whereas being in and circulating in its personal siras, induces unctuousness and lubrication to physique components, integrity of the bony joints and energy and immunity. Many extra capabilities of regular and balanced kapha are carried out by the kapha being in its personal siras.

The visceral organs and the joints are freed from ailments and performance effortlessly when balanced and uncontaminated kapha circulates in its siras.

When the vitiated kapha will get positioned within the siras and operates from therein it might trigger a wide selection of problems of kapha origin.
Learn – Kapha Dosha – Normal introduction

Features of un-vitiated and vitiated blood in blood carrying siras

Pure and uncontaminated blood being and circulating in its personal siras nourishes the tissues, bestows good coloration and complexion and sensation of contact. Many extra capabilities of regular and balanced blood are carried out by the blood being in its personal siras. The pure blood flowing in its personal siras would nourish and handle the wellbeing of the sense organs. It bestows coloration, stability to the physique components, nourishment and enrichment of tissues.

When the vitiated blood will get positioned within the siras and operates from therein it might trigger a wide selection of problems of blood origin.
Learn – Raktavaha Srotas: Description, Vitiation Signs, Remedy

All siras convey all of the doshas!

Siras don’t convey solely vata, pitta or kapha. They carry in all of them the doshas and therefore known as as sarvavaha i.e. ‘these carrying all of the doshas’. The doshas which get aggravated and have a tendency to unfold out from their seats positively transfer in all irregular instructions which don’t belong to them when they’re severely aggravated. On this perspective additionally we should always think about that each one siras convey all of the doshas. All of the siras convey all of the doshas immaterial of the doshas being regular or vitiated.
Learn – Qualities Of Vata, Pitta and Kapha Dosha – Simple Clarification

Classification of Siras primarily based on coloration

Sl No Title of the sira primarily based on dosha or tissue they carry Shade of the sira Different options Trendy correlation
1 Vatavaha – carries vata, crammed with vata Aruna – Reddish brown Stuffed with vata Nerve?
2 Pittavaha – carries pitta Nila – blue Scorching on contact Veins
3 Kaphavaha – carries kapha Goura – white Chilly on contact and agency Lymphatics
4 Raktavaha – carries blood Rohini – Shiny purple Neither too scorching nor too chilly on contact Arteries

Historically the phrase sira has been in comparison with the blood vessels carrying impure blood i.e. veins. However many specialists are of the opinion that the siras aren’t simply veins, actually sira is a phrase which describes the blood vessels. Whereas Nila, Goura and Rohini coloured siras carrying pitta, kapha and blood respectively are in comparison with veins, lymphatics and arteries there’s at all times a debate on what the siras having aruna coloration must be in comparison with. Since these siras carry vata, they need to be related to all actions. Due to this fact it’s sensible to contemplate that aruna coloured siras are nerves. However nerves aren’t hole buildings and this builds up a doubt if rohini sira is a nerve or not!
Learn –

Results of puncturing ‘To not be punctured‘ siras

Siravedha or venesection is among the varieties of bloodletting remedy. However all siras shouldn’t be punctured as part of remedy. Some siras are meant to not be punctured. They’re known as as avedhya siras. If these siras are punctured whereas doing remedy they both trigger deformity or dying.
Among the many 400 siras positioned within the limbs (higher and decrease collectively) – ‘the to not be punctured siras’ are 16 in quantity.
Among the many 136 siras positioned within the trunk – ‘the to not be punctured siras’ are 32 in quantity.
Among the many 164 siras positioned above the extent of clavicle (head and neck) – ‘the to not be punctured siras’ are 50 in quantity.
Learn – Raktamokshana Advantages, Sorts, Process, Indications

To not be punctured Siras

‘To not be punctured’ siras of the limbs – 16 siras

Out of the 400 siras positioned within the limbs 100 siras are present in every limb. Out of those 100 siras in every limb 4 siras are very important and may by no means be punctured. They’re –

  • Jaladhara sira – 1
  • Urvi sira – 2
  • Lohitaksha sira – 1

Similar siras shouldn’t be punctured in every of the 4 limbs. This makes a complete of 4×4 = 16 siras within the limbs (2 higher and a pair of decrease limbs) which shouldn’t be punctured. It’s stated that Jaladhara sira is positioned within the ‘talahrdaya marma’. Urvi and Lohitaksha siras aside from being siras are additionally marmas (very important factors of the physique).
Learn – Marma Shaareera: Definition, Composition: Very important Factors of The Physique

The ‘to not be punctured’ siras of the trunk (chest and stomach) – 32 siras

There are a complete variety of 136 siras within the trunk. The distribution is as beneath talked about –

Sl No Seat / web site of siras Complete quantity
1 Pelvis 32 siras
2 Flanks (in each flanks collectively) 16 siras (8 in direction of left and eight on proper facet)
3 Backbone 24 siras (12 on either side of the backbone)
4 Stomach / stomach 24 siras
5 Thorax / chest  40 siras
Complete 136 siras

1. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in pelvis
Out of the 32 siras positioned within the pelvis and across the hips 8 siras are ‘to not be punctured’. They’re –

  • Vitapa – 2 on every vitapa = 4
  • Katikataruna – 2 on every katikataruna = 4

2. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ within the flanks
Out of the 16 siras within the flanks 8 siras are current in both facet.

Amongst these 4 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re –

  • Urdhwaga Sira – 1 sira transferring upwards on either side of the flank = 2
  • Parsvasandhi – 1 sira positioned within the parsvasandhi area on both facet = 2

3. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ within the backbone  

Among the many 24 siras within the again 12 are positioned on both facet of the backbone.

2 siras shouldn’t be punctured amongst these 24 siras. They’re the urdhvagamini brhati siras – 1 on either side = 2 in quantity.

4. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ within the stomach

Among the many 24 siras positioned within the stomach 2 siras positioned on both facet of the median line above the extent of penis shouldn’t be punctured. This sums as much as 2 siras on both facet of the median line = 4 siras.

5. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ within the thorax

There are 40 siras within the chest area. Amongst them 14 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re –

  • Hrdaya – 2
  • Stanamula – 2 on both facet = 4
  • Stanarohita – 2 on both facet = 4
  • Apalapa – 1 on both facet = 2
  • Apastambha – 1 on both facet = 2

Complete siras ‘to not be punctured’ within the trunk

Sl No Area of the siras No of Siras on this area Variety of siras to not be punctured
1 Pelvis 32 08
2 Again 16 04
3 Backbone 24 02
4 Stomach 24 04
5 Chest 40 14
Complete 136 32

Learn – Marmas of Higher And Decrease Limbs: ShakaGata Marmas

The ‘to not be punctured’ siras of head and neck (areas above the extent of collar bones) – 50 siras

There are a complete variety of 164 siras in head and neck i.e. within the areas of the physique above the extent of collar bones. Out of those 50 siras shouldn’t be punctured. The distribution of siras and ‘to not be punctured siras’ are as defined beneath.

Sl No Seat / web site of siras Complete quantity
1 Neck 56 siras
2 Jaw (decrease) 16 siras (8 on either side of the decrease jaw)
3 Tongue 36 siras (16 beneath the tongue and 20 on the tongue)
4 Nostril 24 siras
5 Eyes 38 siras (19 siras in every eye)
6 Ears 10 siras (5 in every ear)
7 Brow area round nostril and eyes 60 siras
8 Temples 10 siras (5 on either side)
9 Head 12 siras
Complete 262 siras

Notice – The variety of Siras within the head and neck are talked about to be 164 by Grasp Sushruta. However on the finish of chapter 7 of Sharira Sthana (whereby description of siras have been given) the depend doesn’t tally with 164 siras. Actually once we depend all of the siras talked about by Sushruta that are distributed within the head, neck and buildings therein we’ll get 262 siras i.e. 98 siras greater than the quantity talked about by Sushruta within the earlier a part of the identical chapter. The explanation for that is unknown. There may be repetition of some siras. Instance we will see that after having talked about siras of nostril and eye individually he as soon as once more consists of the nostril and eyes together with brow and offers totally different variety of siras (see tab). There may be additionally a chance that he has thought-about solely 164 siras and has not taken the smaller branches within the depend however has considered mentioning them whereas explaining the ‘to not be punctured siras’. However the depend distinction will not be seen within the rationalization of siras associated to limbs and trunk. OOn the opposite hand the variety of siras of head and neck and the depend each completely tally in Grasp Vagbhatas enumeration of those siras in Ashtanga Sangraha.

1. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in neck

There are 56 siras within the neck.

Amongst these siras 16 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re –

  • Marma siras = 4+8 = 12 siras (4 nila and eight matruka)
  • Krukatika = 2
  • Vidhura = 2

2. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in decrease jaw

Among the many 16 siras within the decrease jaw 2 siras on either side positioned within the jaw joints (temporo-mandibular joint) shouldn’t be punctured. So, 4 siras within the jaw shouldn’t be punctured completely.

3. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ within the tongue

Among the many 36 siras, 16 siras are positioned beneath the tongue. Amongst these 4 siras shouldn’t be punctured –

  • Rasavaha siras (these carrying vitamin) = 2
  • Vagvaha siras (these accountable for manufacturing of speech) = 2

4. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in Nostril

There are 24 siras within the nostril. Amongst these 5 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re –

  • 4 siras positioned within the nasal cavity
  • 1 sira positioned within the taste bud

5. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in eyes

There are 38 siras in each eyes collectively. Amongst these 2 siras shouldn’t be punctured i.e. 1 sira positioned within the outer angle of the attention (one within the left outer angle and one in the precise outer angle) = 2 siras.

6. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in ears

There are 10 siras within the ears. Amongst these 2 siras (one in every ear) carrying sound (accountable for notion of sound) shouldn’t be punctured.

7. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ within the a part of the brow associated to eyes and nostril

On this area there are 60 siras. Amongst these 7 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re –

  • These that are located on the margin of hairs = 4
  • Situated within the area of avarta marma (one on either side) = 2
  • Situated within the area of sthapani = 1

8. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in temples

There are 10 siras within the temples. Amongst these 2 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re 1 sira in every temple = 2 siras.

9. ‘To not be punctured Siras’ in head

There are 12 siras within the head. Amongst these 8 siras shouldn’t be punctured. They’re –

What are Siras?

Understanding the time period sira from the definition and origin viewpoint – Siras are hollowed out buildings which carry plasma and blood tissue in them (based on the definition). The siras convey rasa and blood to totally different components of the physique. The time period sira is used as synonym or interchangeably with dhamani and srotas that are the opposite buildings that are associated to transportation and distribution of significant elements within the physique together with these supplies wanted for tissue building. The origin of siras is claimed to be the umbilicus. This rationalization is proscribed to the ‘embryological rationalization of fetal circulation’. The outreach of siras are ‘total physique’ since sarana, the perform of sira is defined as ‘transportation of blood from one place to the opposite’.

Sira understanding from the angle of similes given within the treatises – The water provider simily explains the siras nourishing the buildings. That is the outward circulate of nourishing materials which could be doable solely by way of arteries as a result of veins convey again the blood to the guts. The definition of siras additionally tells the identical. Sarana means to move or issues within the siras transferring to totally different components of the physique. The leaf analogy too explains the outwards branching of siras and their distribution all by way of the physique. This will both be branches of arteries or nerves. However nerves aren’t hole and don’t carry something. All these analogies are given by Sushruta in the identical context, one after the opposite.

If siras are taken as veins and dhamanis (attributable to their pulsation property) as arteries, the water provider analogy explains bigger veins, the ‘channels within the area’ analogy explains the secondary tributaries shaped by the becoming a member of of smallest veins and in flip be a part of collectively to develop into the bigger veins. The ‘veins and venule on the leaf’ analogy explains the tributaries on the origin i.e. venules on the capillary degree. These be a part of to kind the secondary veins or intermediate veins.

From the practical side of siras – the capabilities like extension, flexion, speech, sleeping, awakening and so on are underneath the management of the nervous system and siras must be thought-about as nerves. If these capabilities are stated to be happening attributable to correct blood provide to the organs associated to those capabilities, then siras must be thought-about as arteries.

From the angle of dosha sensible classification of siras – The capabilities of vata, pitta, kapha and blood are additionally carried about by the balanced presence of those parts in siras and put into circulation by way of the identical siras. These capabilities embrace mental capabilities, capabilities of thoughts and physique, nourishment, enrichment of tissues, coloration, complexion, lubrication, integrity, immunity, digestive capabilities, energy, reflection and so on . These capabilities relate to the capabilities of the nervous system / nerves or arteries.

From the angle of coloration of the siras – Siras carrying vata are reddish brown and the outline resembles the nerves. Vata capabilities are carried by way of nerves and the nervous system. Siras carrying pitta are stated to be blue in coloration and resemble the construction of veins. Siras carrying kapha are white in coloration and resemble the construction of lymphatics. Siras carrying blood are shiny purple and clarify the construction of arteries and arterioles. Many specialists due to this fact opine that siras aren’t simply veins. The phrase sira must be understood contextually. Ayurveda masters have given a generalized title to many buildings as sira by way of which one thing is conveyed from one place to the opposite and the time period encompasses all of the buildings talked about on this paragraph.

From the siravedha perspective – Siravedha i.e. venesection which is part of bloodletting remedy in Ayurveda factors in direction of the time period sira as vein as a result of artery or nerve can’t be punctured. Grasp Sushruta has enlisted some siras (described above) which shouldn’t be punctured as part of surgical course of or vensection remedy / bloodletting remedy. These siras may be the better veins or essential arteries or nerves or congruence of those buildings at a degree making a marma i.e. very important construction or level whereby it shall not be punctured. The opposite siras could be punctured and therefore the ‘could be punctured’ part of siras are superficial veins which could be punctured for remedy. The siras which fall underneath the class of ‘to not be punctured’ siras might comprise arteries, deeper veins, bigger veins, nerves or marma factors.

Click on to Seek the advice of Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ayu)

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